About Ménière's Disease

Nobody knows what causes Ménière’s disease – an unpredictable and debilitating condition that causes vertigo, hearing loss, and ringing in the ears. Fortunately, Medtronic has an innovative therapy that can help you get back on your feet.


Ménière's disease is an inner ear condition that causes dizziness or vertigo, hearing loss, and ringing in the ears (tinnitus). The disease usually affects one ear, but can occur in both.


Prosper Ménière, a French doctor, first described the disease. What causes the disease is unknown, but scientists believe that it’s caused by excess fluid inside the hearing and balance canals of your inner ear.

This fluid, called endolymph, sends signals to the brain about your hearing and balance. Too much fluid can cause swelling in the inner ear. Doctors believe this swelling distorts the information sent to your brain, causing the symptoms of Ménière's disease. 1-3


Ménière’s disease usually involves a combination of these symptoms:

  • Dizziness or vertigo, an extreme dizziness that makes you unable to stand or sit up, often with nausea and vomiting
  • Ringing or roaring in the ear (tinnitus)
  • Hearing loss
  • A feeling of pressure in the ear

Symptoms are often unpredictable, which can make it difficult to live a normal life and perform daily activities. It can take several days to recover from a severe vertigo attack. Research shows that quality of life for people with active Ménière’s disease can be very low.4

Risk Factors

Because the cause of the disease is unknown, it’s hard to predict who is at risk. However, you may be more at risk for Ménière’s disease if you:

  • Are a Caucasian between the ages of 20 to 60
  • Are under a lot of stress
  • Eat a diet that is high in salt


Ménière’s disease can be hard to diagnose, because other conditions sometimes cause similar symptoms. To find out if you have Ménière’s disease, your doctor will take your medical history, perform a physical exam, and conduct a few painless tests for hearing and balance. You may have additional tests to rule out other causes of your symptoms.


  1. Torok N. 1977. Old and new in Ménière’s disease. The Laryngoscope. 87(11):1870-1877.
  2. Schuknecht HF. 1975. Pathophysiology of Ménière’s disease. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 8(2):507-514.
  3. Gulya AJ, Schuknecht HF. 1982. Classification of endolymphatic hydrops. Am J Otolaryngol. 3(5):319-322.
  4. Anderson JP, Harris JP. 2001. Impact of Ménière’s disease on quality of life. Otol Neurotol. 22:888-894.

Information on this site should not be used as a substitute for talking with your doctor. Always talk with your doctor about diagnosis and treatment information.

Last updated: 22 Sep 2010

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